Aging men suffer from the dual effects of having too little testosterone and excess estrogen that can severely inhibit sexual desire and performance. For many men, a safe and easy way to increase free testosterone is to prevent it from being converted (aromatized) into excess estrogen is by using Chrysin - the aromatase inhibitor. Chrysin increases and preserves Testosterone, which accounts for it's ability to increase Muscle Growth. Also useful for the treatment of Gout.
Chromium is an essential Micromineral.
Chemical Symbol: Cr
Health Benefits of Chromium
Chromium concentrates in the Adrenal Glands (and may exert (presently unknown) protective effective in the Adrenal Glands).
Aging & Life Extension
Chromium supplementation may counteract the natural decline in the body’s Chromium content that occurs in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process. Chromium may possess Life Extension possibilities.
Chromium may help to reverse Atherosclerosis damage and Atherosclerosis may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency. Chromium may help to regulate Blood Pressure: Chromium may inhibit the ability of excessive Sucrose consumption to cause Hypertension. Chromium may improve Blood Circulation.
Some Cardiovascular Diseases may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency due to Chromium's ability to increase HDL Cholesterol. Description
Chrysin is a type of Isoflavonoid Bioflavonoid.
Health Benefits of ChrysinImmune System
Chrysin may reduce Inflammation.
Chrysin may alleviate Gout (by inhibiting the Xanthine Oxidase enzyme which subsequently causes a reduction in Uric Acid production). Chrysin may stimulate Muscle Growth (by inhibiting the conversion of Testosterone to Estradiol, Chrysin increases and preserves Testosterone which accounts for its ability to increase Muscle Growth):
In animal studies Chrysin caused significant increases in Muscle mass (up to 20%). In chronically ill humans Chrysin caused gains in lean body mass of 1.5 3 kg in after several weeks of therapy.
Chrysin may bind to and activate Benzodiazepine Receptors this activation of Benzodiazepine Receptors may help to alleviate Anxiety.
Chrysin may increase (male) Sexual Desire (libido). Chrysin may Enhance the Function of these Substances
Chrysin may inhibit the conversion of Androstenedione to Estrone (by inhibiting the Aromatase enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Androstenedione to Estrone). Chrysin may inhibit the conversion of Testosterone to Estradiol (by inhibiting the Aromatase enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Testosterone to Estradiol):
* In one study, 3,000 mg of Chrysin per day caused an increase in Testosterone levels of at least 20% in males.
Chrysin may Inhibit these Potentially Toxic Substances
Chrysin may inhibit Aromatase enzymes. Chrysin may inhibit Xanthine Oxidase.
Chrysin may suppress the production of Cortisol (by activating Benzodiazepine Receptors which is a known mechanism of Cortisol suppression).
Chrysin may reduce the body’s endogenous production of Uric Acid (by inhibiting the Xanthine Oxidase enzyme):
* It is noteworthy that Uric Acid also has various therapeutic benefits and is primarily toxic only when produced in excess, in which case it can be a cause of Gout.
Dietary Sources of Chrysin
Bee Products Propolis Herbs Chinese Skullcap Scutellaria Balcalensis Passiflora Coerulea Root Flower Seeds Carrot Seed Daucus carota Seed Other Sources Eastern White Pine Pinus strobes Wood Black Poplar Populus Nigra Plant Balm of Gilead Populus tacamahacca Plant Marsh Skulicap Scujtellaria galericulata Plant Genet Spartium junceum Plant
Chrysin is poorly absorbed when consumed orally.
The dosage of Chrysin required to inhibit the conversion of Testosterone to Estrogens is 1,000 1,500 mg per day (in the form of four to six 250 mg doses or two to three 500 mg doses). Chromium may be beneficial for the treatment of Congestive Heart Failure.
Chromium (especially the Chromium Picolinate form) may increase the fluidity of Cell Membranes.
Poor Eyesight may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency. Glaucoma may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency.
Chromium regulates the body’s Blood Sugar levels Chromium supplementation may decrease Blood Sugar in people with high Blood Sugar levels and raises Blood Sugar in people with low Blood Sugar levels. Chromium (1 - 2 mg per day) may reduce total serum Cholesterol levels by 15%:
Chromium may increase HDL Cholesterol levels. Chromium may lower LDL Cholesterol levels. Chromium (Chromium Picolinate form) may inhibit excessive Cross Linking. Chromium may improve the health of people who undertake intensive Exercise (as intensive Exercise may accelerate the excretion of the body’s Chromium reserves). Chromium may improve the body's metabolism of Glucose due to its incorporation into the GTF molecule:
Chromium may be useful for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and Chromium deficiency may be an underlying cause of some cases of Diabetes Mellitus: Chromium (especially the Chromium Picolinate form) may improve Insulin sensitivity in Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 patients. Chromium (especially in its Chromium Picolinate form) may alleviate Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.
Chromium may improve the uptake of Glucose into the body's cells so that it can be metabolized to produce Energy via Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Hypoglycemia may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency and supplemental Chromium may alleviate the symptoms of Hypoglycemia. Chromium may lower elevated Triglycerides levels in Diabetes Mellitus patients.
Chromium (especially 400 - 800 mcg of the Chromium Picolinate form of Chromium per day) may decrease Insulin Resistance. Chromium may help to prevent Obesity (by improving the body's utilization of Glucose) and may stimulate weight loss in people afflicted with Obesity.
Chromium may reduce the body's levels of Triglycerides.
Chromium concentrates in the Muscles and may increase lean body mass. Chromium (200 - 400 mcg per day of the Chromium Picolinate form of Chromium) may stimulate Muscle Growth . Chromium (200 - 400 mcg per day of the Chromium Picolinate form of Chromium) may increase Muscle Strength .
Chromium concentrates in the Brain. Chromium may reduce Carbohydrate Cravings. Chromium may alleviate Depression:
Chromium may alleviate Major Depression. Chromium may alleviate Minor Depression.
Chromium (Chromium Orotate form) may alleviate Male Infertility.
Chromium may help to alleviate Acne. Chromium concentrates in the Skin. Chromium may Enhance the Function of these Substances
Chromium (Chromium Picolinate form) may enhance the uptake of Creatine into the Muscles.
Chromium is essential for the proper metabolism of dietary Carbohydrates.
Chromium is an essential component of Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF). Chromium normalizes the body's production of Insulin and increases the number of Insulin Receptors.
Chromium may facilitate the synthesis of endogenous Nucleic Acids.
Impaired synthesis of endogenous Proteins may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency. Chromium may Counteract these Potentially Toxic Substances
Chromium may inhibit the ability of Sucrose to cause Hypertension.
Excessive accumulation of Lipofuscin (a pigment that accumulates in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process) may occur as a result of Chromium deficiency. These Substances may Enhance the Function of Chromium Proteins
Transferrin transports Chromium around the body (however Transferrin preferentially transports Iron around the body).
Vitamin C converts the toxic Hexavalent form of Chromium to the beneficial Trivalent form and may increase the absorption of Chromium.
These Substances may Interfere with Chromium Carbohydrates
Sucrose may increase the excretion of Chromium via the Urine.
Iron may interfere with Chromium. Phosphorus may bind with Chromium in the digestive tract to form Chromium Phosphate that travels through the Intestines and is excreted without being absorbed. It is speculated that Vanadium may interfere with the function of Chromium. Excessive Zinc levels may reduce Chromium levels.
Other Factors that may Interfere with Chromium Exercise
Excessive strenuous Exercise may deplete the body’s reserves of Chromium: Endurance Exercise may increase the body’s excretion of Chromium.
These Ailments may Interfere with Chromium
The body’s Chromium content declines in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process. Nervous System
Excessive Stress may reduce the body's absorption of Chromium.
Toxic Effects of Chromium
Evidence is mounting that the Chromium Picolinate form of Chromium may be more toxic (due to the Picolinic Acid moiety of this form) than other forms of Trivalent Chromium.
Birth Defects A study is often cited by Chromium critics that claims that Chromium Picolinate can cause birth defects in the offspring of persons who supplement with Chromium it should be noted that this study involved the equivalent of 6 GRAMS of Chromium per day (an amount that is 3,000 6,000 times that normally used for therapeutic purposes).
Recently (1997) a study was undertaken that concluded that Chromium Picolinate and Chromium Chloride are safe in doses of up to 2,000 times the estimated safe limit of Chromium for humans.
Chromium Picolinate (but not other forms of Chromium) may generate Hydroxyl Free Radicals. Chromium may Interfere with these Substances
Chromium may decrease the body's absorption of Iron. It is speculated that Chromium may interfere with Vanadium.
The “official” daily requirement for Chromium is 50 - 290 mcg. This is the 1989 “Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake Level” as set by the National Academy of Sciences USA for adults with sedentary or light activity lifestyles. Therapeutic Dosage
The optimal daily allowance (ODA) for Chromium is 100 - 600 microg per day. The usual therapeutic dosage of Chromium is 200 - 600 mcg per day. The therapeutic dosage of Chromium used for the treatment of Obesity is 400 600 mcg per day. The therapeutic dosage of Chromium used for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 is 1,000 mcg per day. Body Composition
The average human body contains 6,000 mcg (6 mg) of Chromium (it comprises less than 0.00004% of total body weight). The approximate normal plasma concentration of Chromium is 0.19 mg per ml. Prevalence of Deficiency
Approximately 25% - 50% of the world’s population is deficient in Chromium.
The average daily loss (excretion) of Chromium from the body is 9 mcg Chromium is excreted from the body primarily via the Urine.
The average daily intake of Chromium from dietary sources is 80 - 100 mcg.
Timing of Chromium Supplementation
Ideally, Chromium supplements should be taken on an empty Stomach between breakfast and lunch.
Forms of Chromium & Bioavailability
Trivalent Forms of Chromium
Chromium Acetate consists of 23% Chromium bound to Acetic Acid (acetate). Chromium Arginate consists of Chromium bound to Arginine. Chromium Aspartate consists of Chromium bound to Aspartic Acid. It is claimed to be wellabsorbed. Chromium Chelate consists of 2% Chromium.
Chromium Chloride and Chromium Trichloride consist of 33% Chromium bound to Chloride. 1% of this form of Chromium is absorbed into the body. Chromium Citrate consists of Chromium bound to Citric Acid. Chromium Fumarate consists of Chromium bound to Fumaric Acid. Chromium Gluconate consists of Chromium bound to Gluconic Acid.
Chromium GTF is composed of one molecule of Chromium + two molecules of Nicotinic Acid + one molecule each of Glutamic Acid, Cysteine and Glycine. The absorption rate of this form of Chromium is 10 25%. Chromium Malate consists of Chromium bound to Malic Acid. Chromium Orotate consists of Chromium bound to Orotic Acid.
Chromium Picolinate consists of 88% Picolinic Acid and 12% Chromium. It is a highly bioavailable form of supplemental Chromium. It is composed of one molecule of Chromium bound (chelated) to three molecules of Picolinic Acid. Laboratory studies have proven that Chromium Picolinate is absorbed better than Chromium Chloride.
Evidence is mounting that the Chromium Picolinate form of Chromium may be significantly more toxic (due to the Picolinic Acid moiety of this form) than other forms of Trivalent Chromium.
Chromium Polynicotinate consists of Chromium bound to Nicotinic Acid. This is a patented form of supplemental Chromium. Chromium Polynicotinate is claimed to be the safest form of Chromium and the most wellabsorbed. It is claimed to be better absorbed than Chromium Picolinate.
Hexavalent Forms of Chromium
All forms of Hexavalent Chromium are toxic and should never be consumed by humans.
Bioavailability of Dietary Chromium
The average rate of absorption of dietary sources of Chromium is 0.5% - 2.0%. Chromium is absorbed into the body via the Jejunum.
Up to 10 mcg of Chromium is excreted via the faeces and urine each day.