Tyrosine possesses Life Extension Potential. Improves Thyroid function and alleviates depression, improves mood and increases sexual desire. Decreases appetite, improves energy, mood and alertness. Alleviates Pain. It enhances the function of the Pituitary Gland.
Tyrosine is a non-essential, Glucogenic, Ketogenic, Large Neutral Amino Acid.
Health Benefits of Tyrosine
Aging & Life Extension
Tyrosine may possess Life Extension possibilities (due to its ability to raise the Norepinephrine:Serotonin ratio which is speculated to increase human life span).
Tyrosine may normalize Blood Pressure in some Hypotension patients.
Tyrosine may help to prevent Ventricular Fibrillation.
Tyrosine may inhibit further Hair Loss (but only when Hair Loss is caused by Hypothyroidism).
Tyrosine is a minor Antioxidant.
Tyrosine (1,500 mg per day) may increase the body's production of Energy (by stimulating the Thyroid Gland and by facilitating the production of Norepinephrine).
Tyrosine may alleviate Fatigue:
- Tyrosine (1,500 mg per day) may increase Energy levels in some Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients (by increasing the Brain’s production of Norepinephrine).
Hypoglycemia may cause Tyrosine to be redirected toward the manufacture of endogenous Glucose - this can result in Tyrosine deficiency.
Tyrosine (500 - 1,000 mg per day) may alleviate Hypothyroidism by stimulating the Thyroid Gland:
- Caution: this can be undesirable in Hyperthyroidism patients.
Tyrosine may facilitate weight loss in persons who are afflicted with Obesity (but only when Obesity is due to Hypothyroidism). The underlying mechanism for this effect is Tyrosine’s role in the production of Thyroid Hormones.
Muscles contain high levels of Tyrosine.
Nervous System: Ailments
Tyrosine may be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (Alzheimer’s Disease patients frequently exhibit lowered levels of Dopamine and Norepinephrine; Tyrosine may help to restore normal levels of these Neurotransmitters).
Tyrosine may alleviate Anxiety.
Tyrosine (up to 5,000 mg per day) may be useful in the treatment of some cases of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) (due to its ability to improve Dopamine metabolism).
Tyrosine may alleviate Depression (by functioning as a precursor for the production of Norepinephrine):
- Tyrosine corrects Norepinephrine (NE) deficiency in and alleviates the Depression associated with Amphetamines addiction.
- Tyrosine (6,000 mg per day) may alleviate some cases of Major Depression.
Tyrosine may be useful in the treatment of some types of Drug Dependence by facilitating the production of Dopamine and Norepinephrine, which are depleted in some types of Drug Dependence including:
- Opiates (including Heroin)
- Tyrosine (2,000 mg per day) has been reported to help some people to successfully “quit” Tobacco smoking.
Tyrosine may increase next-day Alertness and cognitive ability in Insomnia patients (i.e. it may counteract the daytime mental Fatigue often experienced by Insomnia sufferers).
Tyrosine may improve the condition of Narcolepsy patients (by stimulating the endogenous production of Dopamine):
- After six months of oral Tyrosine supplementation some Narcolepsy patients are free from daytime sleep attacks and cataplexy.
Tyrosine may alleviate Pain by stimulating the body's production of Endorphins.
Tyrosine may be useful for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (it may increase the turnover of Dopamine in Parkinson’s disease patients and may enhance the effectiveness of supplemental L-Dopa in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease).
Tyrosine may alleviate Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).
Tyrosine may counteract many of the toxic effects of excessive Stress:
- Tyrosine may help to prevent the Learning difficulties that occur as a result of excessive Stress.
- Tyrosine may suppress the rise in plasma Corticosterone following acute Stress.
- Tyrosine may improve Memory during periods of Stress.
- Tyrosine may counteract the depletion of Norepinephrine that occurs as a result of excessive physical or mental Stress.
Nervous System: Enhancement
Tyrosine may increase Alertness (due to its function as a precursor for the production of Norepinephrine).
Tyrosine may increase Assertiveness (by stimulating the production of Norepinephrine).
Tyrosine may improve Concentration ability.
Tyrosine may improve Memory under conditions of Stress.
Tyrosine may improve Mood.
Tyrosine may help to improve Willpower.
Nervous System: Underlying Mechanisms
Tyrosine may reduce excessive Stress on the Adrenal Glands (due to its function as a precursor for the endogenous production of Adrenaline).
Tyrosine may suppress Appetite.
Tyrosine may enhance the function of the Pituitary Gland.
Tyrosine may normalize Blood Pressure in Tuberculosis patients.
Tyrosine may alleviate the Fatigue and Depression experienced by many women afflicted with Pre-Menstrual Syndrome (PMS).
Tyrosine (2,000 - 4,000 mg) may increase Sexual Desire (primarily by functioning as a precursor for the production of the Neurotransmitter that governs Sexual Desire - Dopamine).
Tyrosine may alleviate Dry Skin (but only when Dry Skin is caused by Hypothyroidism). Tyrosine (applied topically in a modified form as a constituent of some Sunless Tanners) may enhance Tanning, while minimizing the toxic effects of excessive exposure to Ultra-Violet Radiation, by accelerating the endogenous production of Melanin in the Skin (products that contain topically-bioavailable Tyrosine usually contain the name “Actibronze” on their list of ingredients).
Tyrosine may Enhance the Function of these Substances
Tyrosine may enhance the effectiveness (potency) of Ephedrine:
- Tyrosine may increase the effectiveness of Ephedrine by approximately 50%, permitting the effective dosage of Ephedrine to be reduced also by approximately 50%.
Tyrosine is the precursor for the endogenous production of L-Dopa (the Enzyme Tyrosine Hydroxylase catalyzes this conversion):
- Supplemental Tyrosine may enhance the effectiveness of supplemental L-Dopa in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Tyrosine can be metabolized to form endogenous Glucose within the Liver after it has lost its amino group by transamination.
Tyrosine (Glucose Tyrosinate form) (added to standard Sunscreens and applied topically) may further enhance the ability of Sunscreens to protect against Sunburn.
Tyrosine is a precursor for the production of Adrenaline.
Tyrosine is involved in the production of Estrogens.
Tyrosine is essential for the production of Melanin.
Tyrosine is an essential component of Thyroid Hormones:
- Tyrosine comprises 35% of Thyroxine (T4).
- Tyrosine is a constituent of Triiodothyronine (T3).
Tyrosine is a precursor for the endogenous production of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters (Catecholamines) including:
- View Tyrosine’s Role in the Synthesis of Catecholamines
Tyrosine (consumed concurrently with Phenylpropanolamine (PPA)) may increase the Appetite Suppressant effects of PPA and Tyrosine may also prevent the development of tolerance to the effects of PPA:
- The concurrent administration of Tyrosine with PPA decreased the Appetite of rats by 56% more than the use of PPA alone.
- The recommended dosage of Tyrosine for enhancing PPA’s effects is 500 - 1,000 mg of Tyrosine.
Tyrosine is an important constituent of Tubulin.
Tyrosine is required for the endogenous production of Coenzyme Q10.
Tyrosine (at a dose of 3,000 mg) may prolong the active life of Amphetamines.
Thyroid Hormone Precursors
Tyrosine is an essential component of all Thyroid Hormone Precursors:
- Diiodotyrosine (DIT)
Tyrosine may Counteract these Potentially Toxic Substances
Tyrosine may suppress the rise in plasma Corticosterone following acute Stress.
Tyrosine may help to treat Alcohol (ethanol) dependence (Alcoholism) by facilitating the production of Dopamine and Norepinephrine.
Tyrosine may reduce the craving for Amphetamines in people undergoing Amphetamine withdrawal.
Tyrosine may help to treat Cocaine dependence by facilitating the production of Dopamine and Norepinephrine.
Tyrosine may help to treat Opiates dependence by facilitating the production of Dopamine and Norepinephrine:
- Tyrosine may help to treat Heroin dependence by facilitating the production of Dopamine and Norepinephrine.
Tyrosine (2,000 mg per day) may help some people to successfully “quit” Tobacco smoking.
These Substances may enhance the Function of Tyrosine
Phenylalanine is a precursor for the endogenous production of Tyrosine (the conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine is catalyzed by the Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Enzyme within the Liver).
Hydrochloric Acid enhances the metabolism of Tyrosine (HCl prevents Tyrosine from converting to the toxic Tyramine).
Chemotropism is responsible for "breaking down" the Carboxyl Groups contained in Tyrosine.
Phenylalanine Hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine (this process occurs primarily in the Liver).
Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of Tyrosine to L-Dopa and also catalyzes the conversion of Tyrosine to Melanin.
Glucagons catalyzes the conversion of "spent" Tyrosine to form endogenous Glucose.
Copper is an essential component of the Tyrosine’s enzyme that converts Tyrosine to Melanin.
Folic Acid facilitates the conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine (it is a cofactor for Phenylalanine Hydroxyls, the Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine; Folic Acid is also a cofactor for Tyrosine Hydroxyls, the Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Tyrosine to L-Dopa).
Vitamin B6 facilitates the conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine.
Vitamin C facilitates the conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine.
These Substances may Interfere with Tyrosine
Caffeine may lower plasma Tyrosine levels.
Isoleucine may compete with Tyrosine for absorption.
Leucine may compete with Tyrosine for absorption.
Tryptophan may compete with Tyrosine for absorption.
Valine may compete with Tyrosine for absorption.
Tyrosine may Interfere with these Substances
Tyrosine may inhibit the ability of Tryptophan to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (it competes with Tryptophan for entry into the Brain).
Toxic Effects of Excessive Tyrosine
Tyrosine may further elevate Blood Pressure in Hypertension patients:
- However some disputes this and claims that Tyrosine normalizes blood pressure, i.e. raises it in Hypotension patients and lowers it in Hypertension patients.
Excessive Tyrosine may cause Aggressiveness.
Excessive Tyrosine may cause Insomnia.
Tyrosine may occasionally trigger Migraines (when Tyrosine's metabolic pathway diverts Tyrosine and causes its conversion to Tyramine).
Excessive consumption of Tyrosine may contribute to Schizophrenia (by contributing to the manufacture of Norepinephrine which is implicated in Schizophrenia).
These Ailments may Interfere with Tyrosine's Normal Biochemical Pathway
Hypochlorhydria (insufficient Hydrochloric Acid production) may cause Tyrosine to be converted to the toxic Amino Acid byproduct - Tyramine - instead of following its usual beneficial biochemical pathway.
Excessive Stress may cause Tyrosine to be converted to the toxic Amino Acid byproduct - Tyramine - instead of following its usual beneficial biochemical pathway.
Candida Albicans proliferation may cause Tyrosine to be converted to the toxic Amino Acid byproduct - Tyramine
- instead of following its usual beneficial biochemical pathway.
Glioblastoma Multiforme tumors may feed on Tyrosine (therefore Glioblastoma multiform patients should not use supplemental Tyrosine).
Melanoma patients should not consume Tyrosine as Melanoma tumors feed on Tyrosine.
Hyperthyroidism patients should not consume Tyrosine (due to its ability to further stimulate an already overactive Thyroid Gland).
Most Schizophrenia patients should avoid using supplemental Tyrosine - the subset of Schizophrenia patients who should avoid Tyrosine are those deemed to have elevated Dopamine levels. This contraindication is due to the ability of Tyrosine to further increase Dopamine levels in Schizophrenia patients who already have abnormally high Dopamine levels.
People who are using Monoamine Oxidize Inhibitors should not use Tyrosine supplements (as this combination increases the risk of Hypertension).
Dietary Sources of Tyrosine
(mg of Tyrosine per 100 grams)
Animal Supplements: Velvet Deer Antler
Cereal Grains: Wheat Germ Soya Beans
Dairy Products: Cottage Cheese Milk
Fish: Clams Herring
Fruits: Bananas: 24 Apricot
Herbs: Alfalfa Parsley
Meats: Pork Beef
Nuts: Almonds Peanuts
Hazel Nuts Walnuts
Processed Foods: Chocolate
Sea Vegetables: Wakame
Seeds: Pumpkin Seeds Sesame Seeds
Vegetables: Asparagus Avocado
Endogenous Tyrosine Levels
LABORATORY REFERENCE VALUES
Males: Plasma Tyrosine
The following blood plasma Tyrosine levels are regarded as normal for adult males (values differ between different laboratories)
- 5 - 12 micromoles (mmoles)/100 ml
- 4 - 6 micromoles (mmoles)/100 ml
Males: Urine Tyrosine
The following urine Phenylalanine levels are regarded as normal for adult males:
- 40 - 260 micromoles (mmoles)/24 hours
Females: Plasma Phenylalanine
The following blood plasma Phenylalanine levels are regarded as normal for adult females (values differ between different laboratories):
- 4 - 12 micromoles (mmoles)/100 ml
- 2 - 9 micromoles (mmoles)/100 ml
Females: Urine Phenylalanine
The following urine Phenylalanine levels are regarded as normal for adult females:
- 40 - 220 micromoles (mmoles)/24 hours
Forms of Tyrosine
Glucose Tyrosinate is a synthetic ester of Tyrosine and Glucose used in some cosmoceutical products designed to topically stimulate the endogenous production of Melanin in the Skin (thereby providing an artificial suntan).
L-Tyrosine is the usual (and natural) form of Tyrosine found in most dietary sources and supplements.
N-Acetyl-Tyrosine is an acetylated form of supplemental Tyrosine. It is claimed to be more than twice as rapidly absorbed and to be more than twice as bioavailable compared with L-Tyrosine.
When considering the above dosage recommendations, it should be noted that the optimal Tyrosine dose can vary immensely between different individuals.
A dosage of 500 - 1,000 mg of supplemental Tyrosine per day often increases the production of Thyroid Hormones that are deficient in Hypothyroidism patients.
A dosage of 1,000 - 3,000 mg of supplemental Tyrosine per day alleviates Depression (other than Major Depression) in some people.
A dosage of 1,500 mg of supplemental Tyrosine per day increases feelings of Energy in some Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients. A dosage of 1,500 mg of supplemental Tyrosine per day increases subjective feelings of Energy in some people.A dosage of 2,000 - 4,000 mg of supplemental Tyrosine per day increases Sexual Desire in some people.
A dosage of 3,000 mg of supplemental Tyrosine increases Alertness in most people.
Dosage of 6,000 mg of supplemental Tyrosine per day (taken as three divided doses of 2,000 mg each during the day) was used in clinical trials that supported the use of supplemental Tyrosine for the treatment of Major Depression.
The optimal timing for Tyrosine supplements is in the morning on an empty Stomach prior to breakfast.
Tyrosine is able to (rapidly) cross the Blood-Brain Barrier but competes with other Large Neutral Amino Acids for transportation across the Blood-Brain Barrier:
The optimal timing for Tyrosine supplements is in the morning on an empty Stomach prior to breakfast.
Tyrosine vs Phenylalanine
Phenylalanine is absorbed by the body better than Tyrosine:
- In one study, 15 grams of supplemental Phenylalanine raised plasma Phenylalanine levels 17 times above baseline. The same dosage of Tyrosine raised plasma levels of Tyrosine to three times above baseline.
- However there is some evidence that Tyrosine crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier more effectively than Phenylalanine.